Oncology, the study of cancer, is just one of many specialisms which increasingly employs the predictive power of applied mathematics. This issue we chat with Trachette Jackson, professor of mathematics at the University of Michigan, to learn about the surprising effectiveness of mathematics in the treatment of cancer, as well as to hear about her own journey into mathematical oncology.
Modelling in medicine
Cancer cells. Image: Public domain.
Trachette starts by bringing us up to date on how mathematics has been used in cancer treatment. “The mathematical approach has been applied to just about every aspect of tumour growth, starting decades ago.” One aspect is cancer therapeutics: “We write down equations that describe the mechanism of action of new drugs and how the tumour responds, then make predictions about how best to deliver those drugs.” Another aspect is more fundamentally biological, such as how cells are transformed: “You can find mathematical equations about the probabilities of acquiring mutations and under what circumstances a tumour forms, as well as what the composition of that tumour will be and how many cells in that tumour will have these different mutations.” This sort of modelling allows us to diagnose or assess the risk of cancer developing, as well as treat it. Continue reading
Throughout history, people have wanted to communicate in secret. But for a long time, the need for sender and recipient to agree on a way to encode their message (a ‘key’) meant that secure communication was costly, and mostly used by the military. But in the 1970s new mathematical ideas paved the way for public-key cryptography, a communication strategy that doesn’t rely on a mutually agreed key. If you’ve ever banked or shopped online then you’ve used public-key cryptography, most probably a type called the Diffie–Hellman protocol. (If you want to brush up on Diffie–Hellman, this is a great time to dig out Axel Kerbec’s article Hiding in plain sight from Chalkdust issue 09.) One of the lesser-known figures in the story of public-key cryptography is Clifford Cocks, a former chief mathematician at Britain’s GCHQ (the Government Communication Headquarters). Cliff’s relative anonymity is because, due to the secretive nature of his employer, his contribution was not made public for 24 years. We caught up with him via video call to find out what it felt like to have cracked the code, but kept it secret. Continue reading
Matt Parker is a nerd, and proud of it. So nerdy that, in a list of the nerdiest things he’s ever done, hiking for three days through the Australian outback to document a ‘confluence point’—an integer intersection of a line of latitude and a line of longitude— “might not even make the top ten”. A quick scroll through his YouTube channel (standupmaths) shows videos with titles like Back to the fax machine, Speed Rubik’s cubing for drunk people and Stand-up comedy about equations that correspond to vortex motion. In the latter, he makes jokes about integration and pokes fun at physicists for calling a torus a doughnut. The video also has over 300,000 views, so clearly there is a huge audience for his brand of nerdiness. When we met Matt, on a grey evening in late January, he was about to embark on a week of talks around the country where he would share his enthusiasm for maths at festivals and in schools. “I want people to learn stuff, sure, but I’m also trying to do a bit of maths PR. I want to make the nerdy kids cool for the day.” Continue reading
We meet Eugenia Cheng a couple of hours before she’s scheduled to give a talk at City University, where she’ll make another stop on her journey to “make abstract mathematics palatable” in the public consciousness. With over 10 million views on YouTube, three best-selling books in How to Bake Pi (2015), Beyond Infinity (2016) and The Art of Logic in an Illogical World (2018), and interviews ranging from the BBC to late night US television, it’s safe to say Cheng has made incredible progress on her mission. Continue reading
“Let’s chat any time, I’m fairly free.” Coming from Chris Budd, a professor of mathematics at both the University of Bath and the Royal Institution, as well as a board member of several of the most influential mathematics organisations in the UK, this is somewhat of a surprise. But he is true to his word, and one Friday afternoon we sat down for a conversation with one of the UK’s most experienced voices in mathematics communication.
The University of Bath. Wikimedia commons, CC BY-SA 3.0
A quick glance at Budd’s website reveals, through a CV that runs to 25 pages, the diversity of his interests and professional experiences. At various times, he has advised on setting A-level examinations, held high-ranking positions in professional societies like the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications, directed the Bath Taps into Science festival and been part of the Vorderman Committee, which produced a report in 2011 about recommendations for mathematics education.
Meet Vernon Morris; a chemist, a mathematician and an active contributor to making everyone aware of the race gap in academia and industry.
Becoming an academic
Given the successes of his academic career, it is surprising to hear that Vernon Morris “never planned to go to college. A lot of folks where I was growing up, they didn’t really go to college. They went into the air force or they tried to find a job.” He was good at boxing when he was at high school and thus was given two options: either join the air force (“because they had a good boxing programme”) or become a professional boxer right away.
Vernon working on his project; Image reproduced with his permission
But fate intervened, and Vernon started at college in Atlanta. “I left for college, but I didn’t know what I wanted to major in.” He was on his way to his part-time job when, cutting through the Department of Chemistry, he bumped into a professor who was so intrigued by him that he offered him a scholarship. “But there was a catch. You have to major in chemistry and you have to major in maths, because you can’t do chemistry without maths. I accepted his offer.” This professor was Henry McBay, a man who is responsible for more African-American PhD students (over 50) than any other single person. It doesn’t come as a surprise, then, that Vernon considers him as a role model: “Henry McBay got me on the right path”.
Talitha Washington is a professor of mathematics at Howard University who is passionate about improving ethnic minority access to STEM subjects in the USA. Talitha, whose name comes from the Biblical verse “Talitha cumi”, literally meaning “little girl, get up!”, introduces herself as an activist, a mathematician, and a professor.
Talitha, the activist
Talitha Washington’s work on Elbert Frank Cox, the first black person in the world to earn a PhD in mathematics, has been shared on radio and television stations, as well as in the Notices of the American Mathematical Society. They both grew up in Evansville, Indiana and both went on to teach at Howard University. Image reproduced with her permission.
The lack of diversity in sciences and mathematics is a sensitive topic, and how different generations interact with racism has drastically changed over the past few decades. “Typically, older generations, like our parents, used to say you should ‘act like a duck and shake off the water’, meaning if you encounter racially charged situations you just grit your teeth and persevere through it: you try not to let it affect you.” Talitha says that for people of her generation this was also the norm, even though it did not seem fair. However, for the younger generations, the situation is a little different. They have grown up with a black president in the United States and the promise that if you work hard you will be rewarded, independent of the colour of your skin. So if they “encounter racially charged situations they may or may not know what to do, or how to handle it. Instead they will say, ‘this is not for me — I am going somewhere else where I am already accepted, because this is not how it should be’. And we don’t want to lose the younger generations in STEM because of that.”
Jonathan Farley is a mathematician from New York who completed his bachelor’s degree at Harvard and graduated with a DPhil from Oxford in 1995, after winning Oxford University’s highest awards for mathematics graduate students, the senior mathematical prize and Johnson university prize. His research interests include lattice theory, the theory of ordered sets and discrete mathematics. Whilst this may sound quite pure, there have also been some interesting applications. For example, Jonathan published a paper in 2003 called ‘Breaking Al Qaeda Cells: A Mathematical Analysis of Counterterrorism Operations’ analysing when a terrorist network becomes disrupted and dysfunctional using order theory. This attracted some media and military attention, including the Ministry of National Security in Jamaica implementing some of Jonathan’s ideas in smuggling networks.
When Jonathan was in high school, his class completed a questionnaire which would tell them their ideal vocation and his result was a mathematician/statistician. “That was the first time I really thought of becoming a mathematician, and since my parents are both professors, I only ever thought of becoming a mathematics professor”. Jonathan’s mother is Jamaican and has a PhD in American history, his father is from Guyana and has a PhD in economics which he completed at the LSE. Continue reading
Tanniemola Liverpool is a professor of theoretical physics in the School of Mathematics at the University of Bristol. As one of the few black mathematics professors in the UK, and as somebody who helped set up the first access scheme to focus specifically on ethnic minorities, his is an authoritative voice on diversity in academia. We spoke with him in September about his experiences, both as a student and as a professor, and about what he thinks are the most important factors in creating a more representative mathematical community.
Early on a February morning, we’re standing outside one of the many trendy cafes in Fitzrovia. Down the street we spot a man striding our way, wearing a full suit, a hat, a giant spider brooch and hastily tying a cravat. It could only be superstar mathematician Cédric Villani.
Cédric is passing through London on his way back from the US, but this is no holiday. In his two days here, he is attending a scientific conference, giving a public lecture, and taking part in a political meeting. His packed schedule leaves the increasingly-busy Fields medallist just enough time to join us for breakfast. Continue reading